Incorrect examples: I need an assistant knowing to correct. = permanent action Bought a dog being lame. = permanent action We saw the girls taking a walk. = ambiguous 5.El gerund with function purely adjective ex: Women singing lowered of the source. The gerund with purely adjective function is incorrect; that is to say, the one that modifies to a noun. In previous oration, the gerund singing modifies to the noun women. When this happens, the gerund is equivalent to a pure adjective or a specifying adjective proposal (that sang). The used gerund of this form is incorrect, because this one must always own verbal and adverbial value.
In the following orations the verbal and adverbial value of the gerund can be seen clearly: Mopping plates, it explained the happened thing. Arriving at house, one remembered. This type of error is corrected replacing the gerund by an equivalent adjective proposal. Generally by " that + the verb in form personal". Examples: Women singing lowered of the source. that strong pains sang Several children suffering they arrived that day.
that they underwent the law raising the taxes is not joust. that it raises Exceptions: The gerunds can be used with purely adjective function burning and boiling: Several level ones burning were seen far. The boiling water pot was spilled to him. Also the gerunds in the work titles, pictures and feet of photographies can be used with adjective function: Caesar crossing the Rubicn. The frogs asking king. The director hoisting the flag. The gerund with adjective value, that is to say, the one that talks about a noun, must be a perception verb (verb in which it is appraised or perceives the action): to contemplate, to see, to watch, to observe, etc. Ex: It, contemplating the landscape, put itself to cry. Sometimes, besides having purely adjective function, the gerund expresses permanent action: She is a secretary speaking three languages. General observation: If the gerund correctly is used, it is possible to be replaced to him, generally, by a personal form of the verb preceded of " while, whereas, at the same time as, at the same time as, whereas, once, after " , etc. incorrect Gerunds: Corrections: I portrayed dog running in the garden. which ran Wrote a story narrating an impressive event. in which it narrates the car restrained, pausing several meters it advanced more. and one paused I was with farmers being poor. that they are Yesterday we saw your brother running in the park. which ran She is a secretary knowing to translate. that she knows discussed the problem, reaching an agreement. and It was arrived it gave to a trunk containing much clothes. that it contains We saw the lion leaving the mount. which left Men salomando walked towards the town. that they salomaban This is for the children living in the misery. that they live injured a truck being wounded three people. and they were Entered the room sitting down the first row. and one sat down the law raising the taxes is not right. that it raises We saw your brother taking a walk in the park. which took a walk They discussed three articles approving them at the end of the session. they approved and them are sold scholastic notebooks having beautiful drawings. that they have the small plane precipitated to earth dying all the passengers. and original Author and source of the article died.