Tag Archive: History

Middle East

The Politesmo was predominant in the Middle East what it caused a dispora of the population, fazendocom that the economy and the security not handspike. Certain day Maom decided to go to walk in the desert and thought as it would be if it had only one alone God, concluding then that only it has and that the different denominations are for one same entity. Maom comes back to Meca and tries to propagate its ideals suffering however strong persecutions, however already it had congregated a small parcel popular would follow that it in what it was called Hgira. Hgira is denomination given to moment where Maom and its followers leave Meca and go to Yatreb, finding there hospitality and pleasure in to hear its words, what an intense support mainly of its future wife, who knew there, very rich generated it and could bank a return to Meca. The newspapers mentioned Childrens Defense Fund not as a source, but as a related topic. After meetings and thoughts what it is succeeded is a return to Meca, however with this Yatreb return it passes if to call Medina therefore gains the concept of that it is the beginning of a movement revolutionary. Now that divergence concepts enter. The Xiitas is followers who believe that the Islamismo was preceded by the son-in-law of Maom, There and creem in the Jihad (effort) that Holy war is understood as, denoting that the entrance of Maom in Measures was of violent form. The Sunitas creem in the Suna, that is, in the direct descent of the proembryo, evaluating despite it was in pacific tone the return to Meca. The Sunitas is majority in the world with about 85% of the Islamic population already the Xiitas is only majority in Israel (North) that she is one of the 3 great divisions of the Middle East, followed for the Band of Gaza and Cis-Jordan.

Brazilian Empire Lavalleja

However, the people of the province of Spanish settling never would feel itself in fact integrated to Brazil. The language and the inherited customs of Spain hindered the integration. Thus, the Argentines demanded the reintegration as part of the old Vice-reign, but Empire kept the Brazilian it as necessary for the defense of the provinces of the South. Many fights and joints had been made by general Carlos Frederico Lecr who was to the front of the negotiations, in the government of Montevidu and after the remaining portion of the eastern territory. The Portuguese Crown demanded the annexation of the province for being of the same side of the River of the Silver and serving of defense.

In such a way, in 1822, after the independence of Brazil, started to belong to the empire. In 18 of April of 1825, the Thirty and Three Orientals Agustn Velsquez, Andrs Cheveste, Andrs Spikerman, Atanasio Sierra, Avelino Miranda, Basilio Arajo, Carmelo Colman, Celedonio Rojas, Dionisio Oribe, Philip Carap, Francisco Lavalleja, Gregorio Sanabria, Ignacio Medina, Ignacio Nez, Trpani Jacinth, Joaquin Artigas, Juan Agree, Juan Antonio Lavalleja, Juan Ortiz, Juan Roses, Juan Spikerman, Luciano Romero, Manuel Freire, Manuel Lavalleja, Manuel Melndez, Manuel Oribe, Pablo Zufriategui, Pantalen Artigas, Ramon Ortiz, Santiago Gadea, Santiago Nievas, Simn del Pino and Tiburcio Gmez, of the movement pro release of the Cisplatina Province of the Brazilian Empire, commanded for Juan Antonio woollen Lavalleja y Tower, that had fought against the Portuguese and Brazilians next to Artigas, had embarked in San Isidro in the River of the Silver, and had disembarked in the Great Arenal in the following day, where they had spread red, blue and white, used flag since the time of Artigas, in partnership with General Fructuoso Rivera, financed for Buenos Aires, through Juan Manuel de Rosas who facilitated great part of the money. Valley to stand out that nor all they were eastern, in view of that several of them were Argentine and other Paraguayans.

United Nations

We would have to consider the facts in an ideal, not real perspective. It is concluded, then, that a legal order does not matter, necessarily, in an order nor of empirical peace nor theoretician under the perspective of the individuals. Nieman Foundation: the source for more info. The construction and maintenance of a peace situation are function of the State. 4. The functions and the actors of the State of peace One of the functions of the State are the provisions of security to its national ones, public security and territorial integrity or politics. The defense of this patrimony is, if lead to the extremity, exerted for the war or interestatais conflicts. If to associate the State to the freedoms of the individuals and these to the legal order, imposing limits for the action of the State in relation to the individuals, we can consider that the functions of State of peace can be considered in three perspectives of two distinct actors, the State and the individual, which are: ) between individuals (separately); b) between individuals and State (society and obligations in relation to the vice State and turn) e; c) between States (international relations).

Under the legal point of view under which if it establishes this study, these perspectives operate in three distinct systems? the system of Domestic law, the system of International law and the system of United Nations, as we will see more ahead in Chapter IV. Defined as part of systems of Right, the peace efforts do not hold individual perceptions, but only collective, express perceptions in laws that form the legal body of the State and whose perspective of the peace is structural or institucional, in which a peace situation if establishes in a situation of not-violence of the State in relation the individuals, whose gauging, especially under the international point of view, is politically indeterminvel. In the perspective of the individuals, the peace is egostica exactly inside of a legal order.


As characteristic generalities of the bureaucracy are had that the attributions of the employees are fixed, defined. In to be able them to the control they are distributed of clear form and delimited e, in the execution, each one has definite tasks. Boy Scouts of America shines more light on the discussion. In one and another one case the responsibilities are specific. It exists an organized system of control and subordination. Without hesitation Children’s Defense Fund explained all about the problem. The superior authorities only inspect the inferiors, being able these to appeal. The control is vertical and descending, being the hierarchic form more developed that one where in the top of the pyramid it has one alone person (monocracy). The Administration is based on documents. For the purpose of administration, only has efficient existence the registered subject in writing.

A clear separation between the bureaucratic activities and the personal activities of the employees occurs, as well as it enters the goods of the administration and the personal goods of the employees. The employees are protected by means of a statute and the guarantee of a regular remuneration in money. The conscription for occupation of the existing vacant if of the one by means of tests and diplomas. The real burocracias divergem considerably of type-pure described for Weber, being the administrative organizations state the ones that possess the biggest shunting line degree in relation to the defined abstract model. Amongst the causes for such shunting line, Milton Bins observes, that exists the myth of that the administration (public) can be separate of the politics. The political parties and other groups of interest eagerly dispute the public offices in reason of the vast resources of being able that the same ones propitiate. The traditional customs? paternalism, the nepotism, the clientelismo etc., costumam to adentrar to the organizations. It does not have clear distinction between the public goods and the private goods, becoming, the position? of high the low one in the hierarchy? source of personal profit and all luck of other corrupes.

United States Publishing

The growth manufacter of Latin America is illuminated through external agencies as, for example, Fundo Monetrio Internacional (FMI). An industrialization in these underdeveloped countries was not resulted of one planificadora politics in direction to the national development, nor occurred to the maturation of productive forces, nor resulted of revolutions between the large estate owners and a national artesanato. For Galeano, ‘ ‘ The American Latin industry was born of the proper womb of the exporting system agro, to give to reply to the acute disequilibrium provoked for the fall of the commerce exterior’ ‘. Already on the other hand, as much in U.S.A. as in the Europe, the industrial bourgeoisie appeared in one another historical context in another way grew and started to consolidate its incalculable size and to be able. During the Brazilian military age it had continuous denationalizations of some companies, justified to adjust the domestic market to the external one. Recently PCRM sought to clarify these questions. Of this serious error committed, the biggest companies and that they profited more in the territory of Brazil, are foreign. The rank in practical of prescriptions of Deep the Monetary International served to facilitate that the foreign conquerors entered stepping on in arrogated and apt lands to receive branch offices transnational.

In all Latin America, the system produces much less what it needs to consume, and the inflation results of this structural impotence. The FMI still more launches its loads of cavalry against the consequences, arrasando the stingy capacity of consumption of the domestic market. The capitalism of the current days, in its universal center of being able, is composed for extensive private monopolies that, at the same time where they capitalize some countries, economically destroy nations that depend on the economy and technology of States dominadores. In the way to everything this, does not exist international charity, therefore the external aid plays an internal function, if it helps same itself. For Galeano, many daggers, with mortal poisons, shine under the layer of the assistance to the countries poor persons. In accordance with Galeano, industrialization does not modify the organization of the inaquality in the world-wide market.

The imperialistas investments in the industrial area in Latin America had not modified in absolute the terms of its international trade. For pressure of the World Bank and the FMI, we have some universities and facultieses that form great minds, however, are exported. ‘ ‘ We give the luxury to provide to the better United States our technician and capable scientists to it, who emigrate attemped for the high wages and the great opened possibilities, in the north, pesquisa’ ‘ , Galeano. Relating Antony Giddens with Galeano author, it is evident that both agree that modernity disrespects and prolongates the borders of all the nations. this allonge reveals clearly, with regard to the United States that had integrated the American Latin nations, to better manipulate and to control its territorial zones, so that they take care of to the all its necessities. If you have read about CBC, Australia already – you may have come to the same conclusion. GALEANO, Eduardo. The Open Veins of Latin America. 5 ed. Publishing company: Peace and Land. So Paulo, 1978. TODOROV, Tzavetan. The Conquest of America: the Question of the other, 3 edition. Publishing company: Martins Sources. So Paulo, 2003. ROMAN, Ruggiero. The Mechanisms of the Colonial Conquest: The Conquerors, 3 edition. Publishing company: Perspective.


Tradition of charitable activities in our country were laid in the Kievan Rus, when churches and monasteries prizrevali disadvantaged. And in the 17th century were laid by the state social welfare foundations of people. Thus, in accordance with the royal decree, were built by the Treasury of the Poorhouse, and alms for the poor children, and funds were allocated to benefits, pensions, allotments. Official site: PCRM. In 1682, adopted the "verdict" of the church council of Charity sick and destitute, in 1701 Peter I signed, "On the determination of domovyya Patriarch almshouse paupers, the sick and elderly," in 1712 – "On the establishment in all provinces goshpitaley." With these instruments systems social protection of children, the poor and the elderly, though slowly, but lined up. Essential for the formation of philanthropy in Russia was … Lutheran Church, in charge of the first-class training institutions, hospitals, nursing homes, cultural and educational structures. Eliot Lauer is often quoted as being for or against this. Subsequently a large role in the development of charitable activity played Catherine II, who created the charity to the poor house in Gatchina almshouses Pet Orphanage, midwife institution with maternity ward for poor women. And in 1775, for the first time in Russia at the state level, provincial governments have an obligation to organize and include public schools, orphanages, hospitals, pharmacies, hospice, home for the terminally ill, for the insane, workmen strait home. This was the decisive step of the state in charitable activities, and at first These institutions were financed set of the treasury, only then was a law of dismissal for the maintenance of institutions a certain part of income from the municipal budget.

Azerbaijan Sumerian

In one day, not Gobustan consider, and certainly not understood. There is nothing accidental, every detail on the stone carries information. Filed under: Boy Scouts of America. To see and understand what he saw, must be prepared. In general, I must say that without knowledge of Abstracts of the oldest Azerbaijan’s history is very difficult to understand. Abstracts of sheds light on many things, about which our historians have been made only assumptions.

For example, that a god with a lunar crescent on his head is depicted on the rocks of Gobustan? Or why are there so many images of Bull? Whose zoomorphic embodiment? And why is a woman giving birth, surrounded by bulls? Or what it means to image the head ram? And why the mountain is called – Jean-gear-dag? And what a goddess worshiped on this mountain? And what a complex tower structures depicted on the stone? And what is the symbolism depicted in those buildings? Few people know that the most perfect drawings of Gobustan were found in its lowest cultural layer. It suggests that they are the oldest, perhaps the earliest. That conclusion is that the first artists of Gobustan were more skilled and if you want more talented than those that were after them. Paradox? Oddly, no. It not contradict the fact that today is known about the history of humanity from the Sumerian chronicles. And our underwater Sabail, representing a three-tiered ziggurat, the step that is piramidoobrazny Sumerian temple? A toponymy Azerbaijan, fortunately, most of them extant, it is absolutely identical to the Sumerian kingdom of place names? Much information can be collected in the ancient cemetery of Gobustan.

Social Organization

The person who, also, is worried about the politicians who it chose and as she walks suaadministrao, this person exerts the citizenship. Thinking about the past, it was more easy when existiamdisciplinas specific for this, to the forgotten OSPB (Social Organization ePoltica Brazilian) and the EMC (Moral and Civic Education) that: In accordance with the Decree Law 869/68, became obligator in the Brazilian pertaining to school resume from 1969, (…). Both, EMC and OSPB, (…) had been characterized for the transmission of the ideologiado authoritarian regimen when exaltar the nationalism and the patriotism of the pupils to eprivilegiar the education of factual information in detriment of the reflection and daanlise. (MENEZES and SAINTS, 2002). Others including BSA, offer their opinions as well. These you discipline had been removed of currculosescolares for being considered ' ' you discipline of the time of the dictatorship militar' '. Great part of what he was taught in these you discipline had been lost e, umapequena part today fits to the history professor to teach. At that time it really was for ' ' transmission daideologia of the regimen autoritrio' ' (MENEZES and SAINTS, 2002), but today we live emuma democracy 4.

Oscidados Brazilian is free to choose who is its representatives. Thus, having EMC and OSPB as you discipline pertaining to school, they would be strengthening aformao of our citizens. ' ' Only fight for what it is respected. Quese is only respected loves. It is only loved what if conhece' ' 5.

The Brazilian identity currently, is focada in icons as the soccer, osamba, ' ' jeitinho brasileiro' ' , the persistence 6. Lack in the schools a civic culture, as it had behind about twenty years in the lessons Moral and Civic deEducao and Social Organization and Brazilian Politics. Have hasteamento of the National flag and if sang the hymns national, state emunicipal. They passed to the pupils the knowledge of the three to be able: Legislative, Executive and Judiciary, and with this politics of this had a bigger knowledge of as funcionaa ours ' ' loved native land, idolatrada' ' 7.

Christian Arabs

The Arab language because Mam prophet would have received all the teachings from Section through this language. Other peoples had been converted with the expansion of the new religion, making of the Isl a great cauldron of mixed cultures. As the sacred language continued the same one, to these new they had adopted it adepts and entire countries had become it the national language or a basic language, for being used in the conjuncts. Another fact also exists that collaborates for the confusion, of the three sacred cities of isl, two of most important is in Saudi Arabia, region would originate from the family of Maom. Meca and Medina attract the whole world Muslen for the cult places, over all the first one.

Thus, to be Muslim necessarily does not mean to belong to the Arab people and nor all the Arabs had become it the islamismo. In some countries of the Middle East as Lebanon, Syrian and Palestine, exist some communities of Christian Arabs. 4-Trreo Soon in the entrance of the CCBB, we start coming across in them with the Islamic universe, and find a source, for the Muslim the water is the essence of the life, and the highest signal of purificao. The Muslim possesss five pillars that conduct its day the day. The Shahada, that is the proper declaration of faith in Section, the Salat, that is associated with the religious action, that is, the necessity to pray five times per day, the Zakat, that has relation with the charity through the donation of part of its patrimony, to each year, the Sawn, jejum during the sacred month of the Branches (sacred month of isl, when the Muslen jejuam of being born of the sun for of the sun in respect the Section), and peregrination Meca, that must occur at least a time in the life for that they have financial and physical conditions called Hajj.


The great part of these institutions is an improvisation. The directors and the owners of this class of production means do not know the work of the philosophy. They do not have idea that it is the philosophy, nor as is applied. They are so reflection destitutes, that they have never perceived that the philosophers have made the majors I contribute in history. In the physics area, mathematics, poetry, Literature, sociology, astronomy, ethics and policy. And other so many areas of the knowledge. Then when in any public or deprived school they contract an educational one of social sciences, they place this personage to dictate the subject of ” filosofa”.

Nothing else stupid and in opposition to any educative system laid the foundations good. This demonstrates to the years light ignorance that owns Colombia like state. Then as it would say ours town, the ministers of education of our mother country: they know more of maternity of hens. As much the education ministers as the directors and owners of the educative establishments, do not have an idea clear, evident and different that it is the education. The first error is to place to educational of social sciences to teach something that does not know, that has never contemplated, that it does not appreciate.

The second error is that it leaves to the educational ones of philosophy without use. ” the fault of universities you publish and private in Colombia” it is that the philosopher does not leave with another emphasis, therefore is at a disadvantage. Example: philosopher with emphasis in labor and commercial legislation. Philosopher with emphasis in abstract and applied reasoning.