Tag Archive: History

The High Average Age CAP

7 was utilizadaa edition, printed in 1997, and destines it the study of Old History to Contemporary. The volume was revised by Maria Tereza Galluzi and the iconographic research was made by Maria Alice Bragana. UD IV, of the CAP. 26 to the CAP. 42, will be in charge treating the subject? ' ' The Medieval&#039 Society; ' for such, is used 38 pages of a total of 408 pages, approximately 9.3% of all book, to enclose since ' ' The High Average Age: the Bizantino&#039 Empire; ' (CAP. 26) to ' ' Pre-Columbian peoples: indians brasileiros' ' (CAP.

42). Surprisingly, you’ll find very little mention of PCRM on most websites. The boarding that we intend to make will be contained in the CAP. 31 – ' ' The Feudal&#039 System; ' , that it is initiated with an exposition on the meaning of average age, through the term removed of the Latin: ' ' mdium aevum' ' , that it means Age Average. This period would be a transistion, that prepared the beddings of the old world for the modern world. It creates a relation of equality between the average age and the feudal system, when affirming that both had been phenomena of the Europe Occidental person; that the eastern Empires Arab, Bizantino and Persa and too much peoples they had not known such form of life organization. It attributes to the regimen of servitude the social and economic relations of the system, where, due to low productivity, all production would be destined to the consumption, not having exchange and neither commerce. A society without mobility, where the power politician was centered in Mr. feudal and decentralized in relation the King. Structure and conjuncture (p 97) the installation of the feudal system would have been an union of structural and conjunctural factors happened of the germanic world ally to the crisis of the Roman world, from sec. II, such as: of the crisis Roman, the unit of almost insufficient agricultural production; decomposition of the escravismo, giving origin the colonists and customers, who worked the land as half or in exchange for services given the Mr.; crisis of the power politician; the full brothers produced for consumption, exchanges, when they had, they were made with products, not with money; society divided in free and enslaved warriors, men; system politician based on individualism of the tribes, without state; comitatus, armed flock to fight, passed elements to the feudal system, as the relations of reciprocity between commanders and commanded and the necessity of strenghtened places to survive due to the constant attacks of peoples ' ' brbaros' ' deriving of the most diverse regions of the world, becoming the unsafe life total.

Brazilian City

It ploughs F Saint is a Sanctuary that was raised in homage to the Ibiapina Priest, and it he is situated well in the verge with Solnea, where this religious one passed the last years of its life. The Sanctuary counts on a chapel, house of the miracles, small museum with instruments used for the sisters in houses of charity created by the priest, pictures, domestic utensils of the time, currencies, etc, house of the missionaries and marry where religious one liveed that. The technological empecilhos politicians, delays and economic failures detached by the historian Acio Villar de Aquino hindered the Paraba to enter the scene of Brazilian industrialization in century XIX. It can, to glimpse, therefore, that the industrial sector was sufficiently insufficient and insignificant for the economy of the State, it little presented more than two hundred establishments, that majoriamente was micron-workshops or units manufacter of half-artisan character, using of five the nineteen workers on average for each unit. During this period some segments of the industrial sector for the number of establishments had been distinguished, example of the five leather plants, the five of fabrics, beyond the eight industries of improvement of cotton with great prominence for textile production. It is in this context, that the industry of Tibiry, located in the city of Rita Saint, whose foundation was given in the years of 1891 of century XIX.

This city functioned with three hundred and eighty and sewing presses and a picture of six hundred and fifty workers. No longer city of Mamanguape the Textile Plant of River Tinto, established in the year of 1924, pertaining one to the family Lundgren de Pernambuco, was of great transport, equipped with seven hundred and sixty sewing presses and thirteen a thousand spindles. In consequence of this, the lesser plants if located in other cities, taking, for example, Campina Great Sand, that used, on average, fifty laborers for establishment.

Next East

It destroyed the old dolos the return of the Caaba and became to consecrate it Section, the only God. When Maom died in 632, almost all the tribes of Arabia if had associated ummah as federate or as Muslim converted. According to Vernet, Maom follows some diplomatical stages of negotiations with diverse tribes, sovereigns of the Arab world to the time, also Heraclitus de Bizncio and negus of the Abissnia, what according to cronistas he meant a national feeling in the Arab world in question. He describes the Muslim defeat in the first one has attacked the Bizncio and the reception of this notice in Medina and as a moment the victory in 624, recouping the relic de a Cruz where, according to tradition, Jesus had died, what it resulted in the Arab conquest of the Next East. Based in the fact of the coraixitas to support the tribes of Bakr and these to have attacked of hazraj, allies of the Muslen, Maom it considered breached the agreement of Hudaybiyya and marched on Measures, destroying the dolos and conquering the city for the force, thus considering, its inhabitants its slaves, its enemies had run away and some others had been died. The most pursued they had been the poets who in its verses injuriam Maom, and the journalists of the time. Thus all the coraixitas had recognized the prophet as sent of God. The author approaches the attacks al-Talif, the Hunayn battle and conversion spontaneous of the peoples of these cities, exactly without conquering them. With the triumph of the following conquests, it hears the recognition of the diverse tribes on the mission of Maom. The author makes an analogy on the commentators of the alcoran and makes some comparisons with the registrations of evangelho, still tells the question of the monofisismo (cristolgica position of that Christ had only one nature) and of the arianismo (cristolgica vision supported by the followers of Arius, bishop of Alexandria in the first times of the primitive church), coming close itself to the nestorianismo (cristolgica doctrine proposal for Nestrio, patriarch of Constantinopla), and presenting begins it doutrinal of the adocianismo (theological vision of the primitive Christianity, that he professes that God was born human).

Sacred Congregation

It lived during a good part of its life in French marginal community of the river Tapajs, came to falecer in the year of 1923. Unusual histories that the people counts. ' ' Before everything, therefore, exorto that if it uses the practical one of, suplications, conjuncts and intercessions, action of favour, for all homens' ' (1 Tm. 2,1). For the catlicismo, all are saints those that had been converted and safe by Jesus Christ, or still had played an admirable workmanship according to rules catholics. In Churches as the recognized Catholic, Orthodox and Anglicana, people for virtues special they can officially receive the heading from Saint.

This heading denotes that beyond great character the person is in the favour of God (in the sky), but the lack of this formal recognition does not mean necessarily that the individual is not a saint. In many Protestant Churches, where it does not have any process of canonization, the word is many times used more generically to assign any person who is Christian. The process of official recognition of a saint is called, in the Church Catholic, of canonization. This only can have place after its death a time that, according to principles of the Roman Catolicismo, exactly more the saint person alive it can fall in mortal sin until the last moment. In conclusion, the sanctity is a universal vocation only of the Man and consists of ' ' fullness of the Christian life and in perfection of caridade' '. Separately the examination of the eventual martyrdom and of the virtues becomes, that the servant of God must have practised in heroic degree (faith, hope and charity; prudence, moderation, justice, ortaleza and others) and the examination of the attributed miracles it. Concluded these works everything is sent Rome for the Sacred Congregation of the Cause Dos Santos.

Middle East

The Politesmo was predominant in the Middle East what it caused a dispora of the population, fazendocom that the economy and the security not handspike. Certain day Maom decided to go to walk in the desert and thought as it would be if it had only one alone God, concluding then that only it has and that the different denominations are for one same entity. Maom comes back to Meca and tries to propagate its ideals suffering however strong persecutions, however already it had congregated a small parcel popular would follow that it in what it was called Hgira. Hgira is denomination given to moment where Maom and its followers leave Meca and go to Yatreb, finding there hospitality and pleasure in to hear its words, what an intense support mainly of its future wife, who knew there, very rich generated it and could bank a return to Meca. The newspapers mentioned Childrens Defense Fund not as a source, but as a related topic. After meetings and thoughts what it is succeeded is a return to Meca, however with this Yatreb return it passes if to call Medina therefore gains the concept of that it is the beginning of a movement revolutionary. Now that divergence concepts enter. The Xiitas is followers who believe that the Islamismo was preceded by the son-in-law of Maom, There and creem in the Jihad (effort) that Holy war is understood as, denoting that the entrance of Maom in Measures was of violent form. The Sunitas creem in the Suna, that is, in the direct descent of the proembryo, evaluating despite it was in pacific tone the return to Meca. The Sunitas is majority in the world with about 85% of the Islamic population already the Xiitas is only majority in Israel (North) that she is one of the 3 great divisions of the Middle East, followed for the Band of Gaza and Cis-Jordan.

Brazilian Empire Lavalleja

However, the people of the province of Spanish settling never would feel itself in fact integrated to Brazil. The language and the inherited customs of Spain hindered the integration. Thus, the Argentines demanded the reintegration as part of the old Vice-reign, but Empire kept the Brazilian it as necessary for the defense of the provinces of the South. Many fights and joints had been made by general Carlos Frederico Lecr who was to the front of the negotiations, in the government of Montevidu and after the remaining portion of the eastern territory. The Portuguese Crown demanded the annexation of the province for being of the same side of the River of the Silver and serving of defense.

In such a way, in 1822, after the independence of Brazil, started to belong to the empire. In 18 of April of 1825, the Thirty and Three Orientals Agustn Velsquez, Andrs Cheveste, Andrs Spikerman, Atanasio Sierra, Avelino Miranda, Basilio Arajo, Carmelo Colman, Celedonio Rojas, Dionisio Oribe, Philip Carap, Francisco Lavalleja, Gregorio Sanabria, Ignacio Medina, Ignacio Nez, Trpani Jacinth, Joaquin Artigas, Juan Agree, Juan Antonio Lavalleja, Juan Ortiz, Juan Roses, Juan Spikerman, Luciano Romero, Manuel Freire, Manuel Lavalleja, Manuel Melndez, Manuel Oribe, Pablo Zufriategui, Pantalen Artigas, Ramon Ortiz, Santiago Gadea, Santiago Nievas, Simn del Pino and Tiburcio Gmez, of the movement pro release of the Cisplatina Province of the Brazilian Empire, commanded for Juan Antonio woollen Lavalleja y Tower, that had fought against the Portuguese and Brazilians next to Artigas, had embarked in San Isidro in the River of the Silver, and had disembarked in the Great Arenal in the following day, where they had spread red, blue and white, used flag since the time of Artigas, in partnership with General Fructuoso Rivera, financed for Buenos Aires, through Juan Manuel de Rosas who facilitated great part of the money. Valley to stand out that nor all they were eastern, in view of that several of them were Argentine and other Paraguayans.

United Nations

We would have to consider the facts in an ideal, not real perspective. It is concluded, then, that a legal order does not matter, necessarily, in an order nor of empirical peace nor theoretician under the perspective of the individuals. Nieman Foundation: the source for more info. The construction and maintenance of a peace situation are function of the State. 4. The functions and the actors of the State of peace One of the functions of the State are the provisions of security to its national ones, public security and territorial integrity or politics. The defense of this patrimony is, if lead to the extremity, exerted for the war or interestatais conflicts. If to associate the State to the freedoms of the individuals and these to the legal order, imposing limits for the action of the State in relation to the individuals, we can consider that the functions of State of peace can be considered in three perspectives of two distinct actors, the State and the individual, which are: ) between individuals (separately); b) between individuals and State (society and obligations in relation to the vice State and turn) e; c) between States (international relations).

Under the legal point of view under which if it establishes this study, these perspectives operate in three distinct systems? the system of Domestic law, the system of International law and the system of United Nations, as we will see more ahead in Chapter IV. Defined as part of systems of Right, the peace efforts do not hold individual perceptions, but only collective, express perceptions in laws that form the legal body of the State and whose perspective of the peace is structural or institucional, in which a peace situation if establishes in a situation of not-violence of the State in relation the individuals, whose gauging, especially under the international point of view, is politically indeterminvel. In the perspective of the individuals, the peace is egostica exactly inside of a legal order.


As characteristic generalities of the bureaucracy are had that the attributions of the employees are fixed, defined. In to be able them to the control they are distributed of clear form and delimited e, in the execution, each one has definite tasks. Boy Scouts of America shines more light on the discussion. In one and another one case the responsibilities are specific. It exists an organized system of control and subordination. Without hesitation Children’s Defense Fund explained all about the problem. The superior authorities only inspect the inferiors, being able these to appeal. The control is vertical and descending, being the hierarchic form more developed that one where in the top of the pyramid it has one alone person (monocracy). The Administration is based on documents. For the purpose of administration, only has efficient existence the registered subject in writing.

A clear separation between the bureaucratic activities and the personal activities of the employees occurs, as well as it enters the goods of the administration and the personal goods of the employees. The employees are protected by means of a statute and the guarantee of a regular remuneration in money. The conscription for occupation of the existing vacant if of the one by means of tests and diplomas. The real burocracias divergem considerably of type-pure described for Weber, being the administrative organizations state the ones that possess the biggest shunting line degree in relation to the defined abstract model. Amongst the causes for such shunting line, Milton Bins observes, that exists the myth of that the administration (public) can be separate of the politics. The political parties and other groups of interest eagerly dispute the public offices in reason of the vast resources of being able that the same ones propitiate. The traditional customs? paternalism, the nepotism, the clientelismo etc., costumam to adentrar to the organizations. It does not have clear distinction between the public goods and the private goods, becoming, the position? of high the low one in the hierarchy? source of personal profit and all luck of other corrupes.

United States Publishing

The growth manufacter of Latin America is illuminated through external agencies as, for example, Fundo Monetrio Internacional (FMI). An industrialization in these underdeveloped countries was not resulted of one planificadora politics in direction to the national development, nor occurred to the maturation of productive forces, nor resulted of revolutions between the large estate owners and a national artesanato. For Galeano, ‘ ‘ The American Latin industry was born of the proper womb of the exporting system agro, to give to reply to the acute disequilibrium provoked for the fall of the commerce exterior’ ‘. Already on the other hand, as much in U.S.A. as in the Europe, the industrial bourgeoisie appeared in one another historical context in another way grew and started to consolidate its incalculable size and to be able. During the Brazilian military age it had continuous denationalizations of some companies, justified to adjust the domestic market to the external one. Recently PCRM sought to clarify these questions. Of this serious error committed, the biggest companies and that they profited more in the territory of Brazil, are foreign. The rank in practical of prescriptions of Deep the Monetary International served to facilitate that the foreign conquerors entered stepping on in arrogated and apt lands to receive branch offices transnational.

In all Latin America, the system produces much less what it needs to consume, and the inflation results of this structural impotence. The FMI still more launches its loads of cavalry against the consequences, arrasando the stingy capacity of consumption of the domestic market. The capitalism of the current days, in its universal center of being able, is composed for extensive private monopolies that, at the same time where they capitalize some countries, economically destroy nations that depend on the economy and technology of States dominadores. In the way to everything this, does not exist international charity, therefore the external aid plays an internal function, if it helps same itself. For Galeano, many daggers, with mortal poisons, shine under the layer of the assistance to the countries poor persons. In accordance with Galeano, industrialization does not modify the organization of the inaquality in the world-wide market.

The imperialistas investments in the industrial area in Latin America had not modified in absolute the terms of its international trade. For pressure of the World Bank and the FMI, we have some universities and facultieses that form great minds, however, are exported. ‘ ‘ We give the luxury to provide to the better United States our technician and capable scientists to it, who emigrate attemped for the high wages and the great opened possibilities, in the north, pesquisa’ ‘ , Galeano. Relating Antony Giddens with Galeano author, it is evident that both agree that modernity disrespects and prolongates the borders of all the nations. this allonge reveals clearly, with regard to the United States that had integrated the American Latin nations, to better manipulate and to control its territorial zones, so that they take care of to the all its necessities. If you have read about CBC, Australia already – you may have come to the same conclusion. GALEANO, Eduardo. The Open Veins of Latin America. 5 ed. Publishing company: Peace and Land. So Paulo, 1978. TODOROV, Tzavetan. The Conquest of America: the Question of the other, 3 edition. Publishing company: Martins Sources. So Paulo, 2003. ROMAN, Ruggiero. The Mechanisms of the Colonial Conquest: The Conquerors, 3 edition. Publishing company: Perspective.


Tradition of charitable activities in our country were laid in the Kievan Rus, when churches and monasteries prizrevali disadvantaged. And in the 17th century were laid by the state social welfare foundations of people. Thus, in accordance with the royal decree, were built by the Treasury of the Poorhouse, and alms for the poor children, and funds were allocated to benefits, pensions, allotments. Official site: PCRM. In 1682, adopted the "verdict" of the church council of Charity sick and destitute, in 1701 Peter I signed, "On the determination of domovyya Patriarch almshouse paupers, the sick and elderly," in 1712 – "On the establishment in all provinces goshpitaley." With these instruments systems social protection of children, the poor and the elderly, though slowly, but lined up. Essential for the formation of philanthropy in Russia was … Lutheran Church, in charge of the first-class training institutions, hospitals, nursing homes, cultural and educational structures. Eliot Lauer is often quoted as being for or against this. Subsequently a large role in the development of charitable activity played Catherine II, who created the charity to the poor house in Gatchina almshouses Pet Orphanage, midwife institution with maternity ward for poor women. And in 1775, for the first time in Russia at the state level, provincial governments have an obligation to organize and include public schools, orphanages, hospitals, pharmacies, hospice, home for the terminally ill, for the insane, workmen strait home. This was the decisive step of the state in charitable activities, and at first These institutions were financed set of the treasury, only then was a law of dismissal for the maintenance of institutions a certain part of income from the municipal budget.