Tag Archive: art and science

Inquiry Foundation

The deep foundation, normally, dismissal opening of the digging of foundation, consisting, for example, in an element cravado by means of a beat-prop. CHARACTERISTICS? Load transmitted to the ground for pressures under the base of the foundation (tip) and attrition throughout the lateral surface (shaft). It is seats in depth, in relation to the adjacent, superior land to the double of its lesser dimension in plant (D > 2B) e, at least, 3 m. If you have read about BSA already – you may have come to the same conclusion. Magnitude and direction of the actions. Responsibility of the workmanship. Presence of thick ground layers soft.

Very resistant presence of layers of ground or with mataces. Possibility of negative attrition. Level d? high water. Sensitivity of the neighbors and vibrations (cravao of props and foundations of machines). CRITERIA FOR CHOICE OF the TYPE OF DEEP FOUNDATIONS Are diverse the 0 variable to be considered for the choice of the type of foundation. In a first stage, she is necessary to analyze the criteria technician that condition the choice for a type or another one of foundation. The main criteria are: (1) Topography of the area: Topographical survey (planialtimtrico); Data on slopes and hillsides in the land (or that they can reach the land); Data on erosions (or preoccupying evolutions in the geomorfologia). (2) Data geologic-geotcnicos: Inquiry of the subsoil (to the times in two stages: preliminary and to complement); Variability of the layers and the depth of each one of them; Existence of layers resistant or you accumulated; Compressibility and resistance of ground; Position of level d water; Other geologic and geotcnicos data (maps, aerial photos and aerophotogrammetry surveys, articles on experiences in the area, publications of the CPRM, etc.). (3) Data of the structure to construct: Type and use that the new workmanship will have; Structural system (hiperestaticidade, flexibility, etc.); Constructive system (conventional or daily pay-molded); Loads (Action in the foundations).

SCN Complexes

A subclass who must be cited is of the 2-cloroetil-metanossulfonatos. (2-cloroetil-sulfonil)? metil metanossulfonato (clomesona), although to present lesser activity cytotoxic that of the Bussulfan and the same types, one has revealed more selective in relation to the DNA, when compared with nitrossurias (Tong and Lundlum, 1980) .3.6. Antineoplsicos complexes of coordination of platinOs formed by composites of coordination with platinum, as the cisplatina (cis-DDP, commercially Platinil or Platinol) and the carboplatina (CBDCA, Paraplatin), alquilam the DNA (Najjar, 1992). The platinum complex suffers reaction from substitution of ligantes in the organism. For this, it must have in its structure a called group deserter, who must present moderate labilidade, being the chloride (CL) more widely used. Complexes with ligantes strong coordinate, as IN the 2 and SCN are inactive. An exception to this last generalization is the complexes contends ligantes double-toothed dicarboxilatos, that show activity and, due to its lesser reactivity, causes little collateral effect (Hahn and Weinberg, 2002).

Already complex with very lbeis ligantes, as the nitrate (IN the 3-), is very toxic and they do not show antitumoral activity. The ligantes that remain in the sphere of coordination of platinum, that is, those that they are not substituted in the organism must be relatively inert groups, as the amino ones. These double-toothed ligantes can be mono or. The double-toothed ones form preferential, with platinum, rings that are energetically favorable, as of five or six members. These ligantes follow the platinum atom until its target in the interior of the cell, and thus they shape the citotoxidez and the antitumoral effect of the complexes (Hahn and Weinberg, 2002). The carboplatina basically the same presents aspect of activity of the cisplatina, however with reduced collateral effect. Unhappyly, although better to be tolerated, the not active carboplatina in resistant cells to the cisplatina (Oliveira and Alves, 2002). Beyond the monometallic complexes, one another sufficiently promising platinum composite classroom is that one where the complexes present two on units of platinum for a diamina of changeable length of carbonic chain.